1,5-anhydroglucitol

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  • Name: 1,5-anhydroglucitol
  • Description: 1,5-Anhydrosorbitol or 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a validated marker of short-term glycemic control. This substance is derived mainly from food, is well absorbed in the intestine, and is distr... ibuted to all organs and tissues. It is metabolically stable, being excreted in the urine when its level exceeds the renal threshold. It is reabsorbed in the renal tubules and is competitively inhibited by glucosuria, which leads to a reduction in its level in serum. The correlation between this reduction and the amount of glucose present in urine is so close that 1,5 AG can be used as a sensitive, day-to-day, real-time marker of glycemic control. It provides useful information on current glycemic control and is superior to both hemoglobin A1C and fructosamine in detecting near-normoglycemia. 1,5-AG in human plasma has been proposed for several years as a short-term, retrospective marker of glycemic control and seems to be the most suitable parameter for monitoring glucose excursions. The decrease in serum 1,5-AG is very sensitive to urinary glucose excretion. It is a metabolically inert polyol that competes with glucose for reabsorption in the kidneys. Otherwise stable levels of 1,5-AG are rapidly depleted as blood glucose levels exceed the renal threshold for glucosuria. 1,5-AG is also more tightly associated with glucose fluctuations and postprandial glucose. (PMID: 18088226 , 12166605 , 7783360 , 8940824 ).
Overview of age-variations
Age group comparisons
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
27036001 Age 29 ± 4, Gender ⚥ 0.31 (CV (CV=SD of metabolite abundance (peak areas from LC-MS) divided by the mean)) LC/MS blood
27036001 Age 81 ± 7, Gender ⚥ 0.47 (CV (CV=SD of metabolite abundance (peak areas from LC-MS) divided by the mean)) LC/MS blood
27374292 Age [25–35] (median=32), Gender ♂ (Japanese) 1.312926 (average level of metabolite) UHPLC-MS/MS Negative mode serum
27374292 Age [55–64] (median=60), Gender ♂ (Japanese) 1.025356 (average level of metabolite) UHPLC-MS/MS Negative mode serum
Linear regression
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
23838602 Age [17–85], Gender ⚥ -0.008 (β) UHPLC/MS/MS serum and plasma
7835210 Age 51.2 ± 22, Gender ⚥ -0.296 (β) enzymatic method blood
log2 ratio/log2(FC)
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
Summary
  • Synonym:
    1,5-AG; 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol;1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol;Polygalitol; 2-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydropyran-3,4,5-triol ; 1,5-anhydrosorbitol
  • Chemical Formula:
    C6H12O5
  • Systematic name:
    (2R,3S,4R,5S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol;2-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
  • SMILES:
    C1C(C(C(C(O1)CO)O)O)O
  • InChI:
    InChI=1S/C6H12O5/c7-1-4-6(10)5(9)3(8)2-11-4/h3-10H,1-2H2
  • InChI Key:
    MPCAJMNYNOGXPB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Related resources
Metabolite sources and localization
  • Metabolite location:
    Human organism, Body part, Human body biofluids, Biofluid tissues, Blood, Plasma, Serum, Cerebrospinal fluid, Saliva, Sweat, Tissue, Excreta material
  • Metabolite source:
    Homo sapiens, endogenous metabolite
Age-variations
Age group comparisons
Method: LC/MS
Sample: blood
PubMed PMID: 27036001

Age group comparisons
Method: UHPLC-MS/MS Negative mode
Sample: serum
PubMed PMID: 27374292
Linear regression
Method: UHPLC/MS/MS
Sample: serum and plasma
PubMed PMID: 23838602
β = -0.008 (y = βx + α)
p-value < 0.05

Linear regression
Method: enzymatic method
Sample: blood
PubMed PMID: 7835210
β = -0.296 (y = βx + α)
p-value < 0.05