L-carnitine

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  • Name: L-carnitine
  • Description: Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N-trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Ca... rnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterionwith low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnitine)
Overview of age-variations
Age group comparisons
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
Linear regression
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
23838602 Age [17–85], Gender ⚥ -0.005 (β) UPLC-MS/MS; GC-MS serum, plasma
log2 ratio/log2(FC)
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
Summary
  • Synonym:
    vitamin BT; (R)-carnitine;levocarnitine
  • Chemical Formula:
    C7H15NO3
  • Exact Mass g/mol:
    161.1050000
  • Systematic name:
    (3R)-3-hydroxy-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoate
  • SMILES:
    C[N+](C)(C)C[C@@H](CC(=O)[O-])O
  • InChI:
    InChI=1S/C7H15NO3/c1-8(2,3)5-6(9)4-7(10)11/h6,9H,4-5H2,1-3H3/t6-/m1/s1
  • InChI Key:
    PHIQHXFUZVPYII-ZCFIWIBFSA-N
  • CAS number:
    541-15-1
Related resources
Metabolite sources and localization
  • Metabolite location:
    Human organism, Body part, Human body biofluids, Biofluid tissues, Blood, Plasma, Serum, Tissue
  • Metabolite source:
    Homo sapiens, endogenous metabolite
Age-variations
Linear regression
Method: UPLC-MS/MS; GC-MS
Sample: serum; plasma
PubMed PMID: 23838602
β = -0.005 (y = βx + α)
p-value < 0.05