D-glucose

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  • Name: D-glucose
  • Description: Glucose is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group and is therefore referred to as an aldohexose. The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) and ring (cycl... ic) form, the latter being the result of an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form an intramolecular hemiacetal. In water solution both forms are in equilibrium and at pH 7 the cyclic one is the predominant. Glucose is a primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. In animals glucose arises from the breakdown of glycogen in a process known as glycogenolysis. Glucose is synthesized in the liver and kidneys from non-carbohydrate intermediates, such as pyruvate and glycerol, by a process known as gluconeogenesis. D-Glucose is found to be associated with 3-methyl-crotonyl-glycinuria, growth hormone deficiency, and primary hypomagnesemia, which are inborn errors of metabolism. (HMDB0000122)
Overview of age-variations
Age group comparisons
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
18384253 Age 24.5 ± 3, Gender ⚥ 0.96 (mean value of the compound area) LC-MS; GC-MS plasma
18384253 Age 40.8 ± 5.6, Gender ⚥ 0.82 (mean value of the compound area) LC-MS; GC-MS plasma
18384253 Age 55.6 ± 3.7, Gender ⚥ 0.86 (mean value of the compound area) LC-MS; GC-MS plasma
7626826 Age 27 ± 4.6, Gender ⚥ 8.63 (mg/100gm/min) PET anterior temporal cortex
7626826 Age 66 ± 5, Gender ⚥ 6.33 (mg/100gm/min) PET anterior temporal cortex
7626826 Age 27 ± 4.6, Gender ⚥ 10.04 (mg/100gm/min) PET middle temportal cortex
7626826 Age 66 ± 5, Gender ⚥ 8.02 (mg/100gm/min) PET middle temportal cortex
7626826 Age 27 ± 4.6, Gender ⚥ 9.83 (mg/100gm/min) PET posterior temportal cortex
7626826 Age 66 ± 5, Gender ⚥ 8.42 (mg/100gm/min) PET posterior temportal cortex
7626826 Age 27 ± 4.6, Gender ⚥ 7.74 (mg/100gm/min) PET mesial temporal cortex
7626826 Age 66 ± 5, Gender ⚥ 6.4 (mg/100gm/min) PET mesial temporal cortex
27374292 Age [25–35] (median=32), Gender ♀ (Japanese) 0.94673 (average level of metabolite) UHPLC-MS/MS HILIC serum
27374292 Age [55–65] (median=60), Gender ♀ (Japanese) 1.010462 (average level of metabolite) UHPLC-MS/MS HILIC serum
27374292 Age [25–35] (median=32), Gender ♂ (Japanese) 0.998073 (average level of metabolite) UHPLC-MS/MS HILIC serum
27374292 Age [55–64] (median=60), Gender ♂ (Japanese) 1.084703 (average level of metabolite) UHPLC-MS/MS HILIC serum
12535825 Age 26 ± 5, Gender ♂ 4.8 (μmol/ml) PET blood
12535825 Age 67 ± 5, Gender ♂ 5.1 (μmol/ml) PET blood
Linear regression
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
23838602 Age [17–85], Gender ⚥ 0.017 (β) UPLC-MS/MS; GC-MS serum, plasma
log2 ratio/log2(FC)
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
29090929 Age 42 ± 12, Gender ♀ -0.149 (log2 ratio) NMR blood
29090929 Age 41 ± 12, Gender ♂ -0.059 (log2 ratio) NMR blood
Summary
  • Synonym:
    D-Glucopyranose; Glc; dextrose; D-gluco-hexopyranose
  • Chemical Formula:
    C6H12O6
  • Exact Mass g/mol:
    180.0630000
  • Systematic name:
    (3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
  • SMILES:
    C([C@@H]1[C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](C(O1)O)O)O)O)O
  • InChI:
    InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3-,4+,5-,6?/m1/s1
  • InChI Key:
    WQZGKKKJIJFFOK-GASJEMHNSA-N
  • CAS number:
    2280-44-6; 50-99-7
Related resources
Pathway info P = product of S = substrate of
Metabolite sources and localization
  • Metabolite location:
    Human organism, Body part, Extracellular, Human body biofluids, Biofluid tissues, Blood, Plasma, Serum, Cerebrospinal fluid, Breast milk, Saliva, Sweat, Urine, Mouth, Organ, Bladder, Brain, Gland, Adrenal gland, Adrenal cortex, Intestine, Kidney, Liver, Lung, Muscle, Pancreas, Pancreatic tissue, Pancreatic islets, Beta cell, Placenta, Prostate, Skin, Skin tissue, Epidermis, Tissue, Adipose tissue, Connective tissue, Connective tissue cell, Fibroblast, Nervous tissue, Nervous tissue cells, Nerve cell, Subcellular level of nervous cells, Myelin sheath, Cellular (general class), Subcellular, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Lysosome, Excreta material, Feces
  • Metabolite source:
    Homo sapiens, endogenous metabolite
Age-variations
Age group comparisons
Method: LC-MS; GC-MS
Sample: plasma
PubMed PMID: 18384253

Age group comparisons
Method: PET
Sample: anterior temporal cortex
PubMed PMID: 7626826

Age group comparisons
Method: PET
Sample: middle temportal cortex
PubMed PMID: 7626826

Age group comparisons
Method: PET
Sample: posterior temportal cortex
PubMed PMID: 7626826

Age group comparisons
Method: PET
Sample: mesial temporal cortex
PubMed PMID: 7626826

Age group comparisons
Method: UHPLC-MS/MS HILIC
Sample: serum
PubMed PMID: 27374292

Age group comparisons
Method: PET
Sample: blood
PubMed PMID: 12535825
Linear regression
Method: UPLC-MS/MS; GC-MS
Sample: serum; plasma
PubMed PMID: 23838602
β = 0.017 (y = βx + α)
p-value < 0.05

Fold-change with age
Method: NMR
Sample: blood
PubMed PMID: 29090929