D-ribose

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  • Name: D-ribose
  • Description: D-Ribose is a ribose in which the chiral carbon atom furthest away from the aldehyde group (C4') has the same configuration as in D-glyceraldehyde. Commonly referred to as simply ribose, it is a fi... ve-carbon sugar found in all living cells. Ribose is not an essential nutrient because it can be synthesized by almost every tissue in the body from other substances, such as glucose. It is vital for life as a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, ADP, and AMP. In nature, small amounts of ribose can be found in ripe fruits and vegetables. Brewer's yeast, which has a high concentration of RNA, is another rich source of ribose. D-ribose is also a component of many so-called energy drinks and anti-ageing products available on the market today. Ribose is a structural component of ATP, which is the primary energy source for exercising muscle. The adenosine component is an adenine base attached to the five-carbon sugar ribose. ATP provides energy to working muscles by releasing a phosphate group, hence becoming ADP, which in turn may release a phosphate group, then becoming AMP. During intense muscular activity, the total amount of ATP available is quickly depleted. In an effort to correct this imbalance, AMP is broken down in the muscle and secreted from the cell. Once the breakdown products of AMP are released from the cell, the energy potential (TAN pool) of the muscle is reduced and ATP must then be reformed using ribose. Ribose helps restore the level of adenine nucleotides by bypassing the rate-limiting step in the de novo (oxidative pentose phosphate) pathway, which regenerates phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP), the essential precursor for ATP. If ribose is not readily available to a cell, glucose may be converted to ribose. Ribose supplementation has been shown to increase the rate of ATP resynthesis following intense exercise. The use of ribose in men with severe coronary artery disease resulted in improved exercise tolerance. Hence, there is interest in the potential of ribose supplements to boost muscular performance in athletic activities (PMID: 17618002; Current Sports Medicine Reports. 2007 Jul;6(4):254-7)
Overview of age-variations
Age group comparisons
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
27374292 Age [25–35] (median=32), Gender ♂ (Japanese) 1.284658 (average level of metabolite) GC/MS serum
27374292 Age [55–64] (median=60), Gender ♂ (Japanese) 0.877351 (average level of metabolite) GC/MS serum
Linear regression
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
log2 ratio/log2(FC)
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
Summary
  • Synonym:
    aldehydo-D-ribose; D-ribo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxyvaleraldehyde; D-ribopyranose; aldehydo-D-ribo-pentose; D-ribofuranose;(3R,4S,5R)-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4-triol; (3R,4R,5R)-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2,3,4,5-tetrol; D-ribo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentanal
  • Chemical Formula:
    C5H10O5
  • Systematic name:
    (3R,4S,5R)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-2,3,4-triol
  • SMILES:
    C(C1C(C(C(O1)O)O)O)O
  • InChI:
    InChI=1S/C5H10O5/c6-1-2-3(7)4(8)5(9)10-2/h2-9H,1H2/t2-,3-,4-,5?/m1/s1
  • InChI Key:
    HMFHBZSHGGEWLO-SOOFDHNKSA-N
  • CAS number:
    613-83-2; 10257-32-6; 50-69-1
Pathway info P = product of S = substrate of
Metabolite sources and localization
  • Metabolite location:
    Human organism, Body part, Extracellular, Human body biofluids, Biofluid tissues, Blood, Blood cells, Platelet, Serum, Cerebrospinal fluid, Saliva, Urine, Organ, Gland, Adrenal gland, Gonad, Testicle, Kidney, Lung, Muscle, Skeletal muscle, Pancreas, Placenta, Prostate, Skin, Skin tissue, Epidermis, Spleen, Tissue, Connective tissue, Connective tissue cell, Fibroblast, Nervous tissue, Nervous tissue cells, Nerve cell, Excreta material, Feces
  • Metabolite source:
    Homo sapiens, endogenous metabolite
Age-variations
Age group comparisons
Method: GC/MS
Sample: serum
PubMed PMID: 27374292