• Name: D-xylose
  • Description: Xylose or wood sugar is an aldopentose - a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms and an aldehyde functional group. It has chemical formula C5H10O5 and is 40% as sweet as sucrose. Xylose is fo... und in the embryos of most edible plants. The polysaccharide xylan, which is closely associated with cellulose, consists practically entirely of d-xylose. Corncobs, cottonseed hulls, pecan shells, and straw contain considerable amounts of this sugar. Xylose is also found in mucopolysaccharides of connective tissue and sometimes in the urine. Xylose is the first sugar added to serine or threonine residues during proteoglycan type O-glycosylation. Therefore xylose is involved in the biosythetic pathways of most anionic polysaccharides such as heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate. In medicine, xylose is used to test for malabsorption by administering a xylose solution to the patient after fasting. If xylose is detected in the blood and/or urine within the next few hours, it has been absorbed by the intestines. Xylose is said to be one of eight sugars which are essential for human nutrition, the others being galactose, glucose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, fucose, and sialic acid. Xylose in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of apples and other fruits. (HMDB0000098)
Overview of age-variations
Age group comparisons
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
27374292 Age [25–35] (median=32), Gender ♀ (Japanese) 0.823385 (average level of metabolite) GC/MS serum
27374292 Age [55–65] (median=60), Gender ♀ (Japanese) 1.2115 (average level of metabolite) GC/MS serum
Linear regression
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
log2 ratio/log2(FC)
PMID Age/Age interval, Gender Value (unit of measurement) Method Sample
  • Synonym:
    (2R,3S,4R)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxyvaleraldehyde; aldehydo-D-xylose; D-xylopentose; (2R,3S,4R)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentanaldehyde; D-Xyl;D-xylopyranose; wood sugar; (3R,4S,5R)-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2,3,4,5-tetrol; (3R,4S,5R)-oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
  • Chemical Formula:
  • Systematic name:
  • InChI:
  • InChI Key:
Related resources
Pathway info P = product of S = substrate of
Metabolite sources and localization
  • Metabolite location:
    Human organism, Body part, Extracellular, Human body biofluids, Biofluid tissues, Blood, Serum, Saliva, Urine, Organ, Intestine, Small intestine, Tissue, Cellular (general class), Subcellular, Cytoplasm, Lysosome, Excreta material, Feces
  • Metabolite source:
    Homo sapiens, endogenous metabolite
Age group comparisons
Method: GC/MS
Sample: serum
PubMed PMID: 27374292